Tae Kim


Is person.Expressing state-of-being
学生Is student.Expressing state-of-being
元気Is well.Expressing state-of-being
学生じゃないIs not student.Expressing state-of-being
友達じゃないIs not friend.Expressing state-of-being
元気じゃないIs not well.Expressing state-of-being
学生だったWas student.Expressing state-of-being
友達じゃなかったWas not friend.Expressing state-of-being
元気じゃなかったWas not well.Expressing state-of-being
Bob: Is Alice (you) student?
Alice: Yeah, (I) am.
Introduction to Particles
Bob: John is tomorrow?
Alice: No, not tomorrow.
Introduction to Particles
Alice: Today is exam.
Bob: What about John?
Alice: John is tomorrow. (As for John, the exam is tomorrow.)
Introduction to Particles
Bob: Is Alice (you) student?
Alice: Yeah, and Tom is also student.
Introduction to Particles
Bob: Is Alice (you) student?
Alice: Yeah, but Tom is not student.
Introduction to Particles
Bob: Is Alice (you) student?
Alice: No, and Tom is also not student.
Introduction to Particles
Bob: Who is the one that is student?
Alice: John is the one who is student.
Introduction to Particles
学生?Who is the one that is student?Introduction to Particles
学生。As for me, (I am) student.Introduction to Particles
私が学生。I (am) the one (that is) student.Introduction to Particles
静か人。Quiet person.Adjectives
きれい人。Pretty person.Adjectives
友達は親切。Friend is kind.Adjectives
友達は親切な人だ。Friend is kind person.Adjectives
ボブは魚が好きだ。Bob likes fish.Adjectives
ボブは魚が好きじゃないBob does not like fish.Adjectives
ボブは魚が好きだったBob liked fish.Adjectives
ボブは魚が好きじゃなかったBob did not like fish.Adjectives
高いビル。Tall building.Adjectives
高くないビル。Not tall building.Adjectives
高かったビル。Building that was tall.Adjectives
高くなかったビル。Building that was not tall.Adjectives
値段があんまりよくないPrice isn’t very good.Adjectives
彼はかっこよかったHe looked really cool!Adjectives
アリスは食べるAs for Alice, eat.Verb Basics
ジムが来るJim is the one that comes.Verb Basics
ボブもするBob also do.Verb Basics
お金があるThere is money. (lit: Money is the thing that exists.)Verb Basics
私は買うAs for me, buy.Verb Basics
猫はいるThere is cat. (lit: As for cat, it exists.)Verb Basics
アリスは食べないAs for Alice, does not eat.Negative Verbs
ジムが遊ばないJim is the one that does not play.Negative Verbs
ボブもしないBob also does not do.Negative Verbs
お金がないThere is no money. (lit: Money is the thing that does not exist.)Negative Verbs
私は買わないAs for me, not buy.Negative Verbs
猫はいないThere is no cat. (lit: As for cat, does not exist.)Negative Verbs
ご飯は、食べたAs for meal, ate.Past Tense
映画は、全部見たAs for movie, saw them all.Past Tense
今日は、走ったAs for today, ran.Past Tense
友達が来たFriend is the one that came.Past Tense
私も遊んだI also played.Past Tense
勉強は、したAbout study, did it.Past Tense
アリスは食べなかったAs for Alice, did not eat.Past Tense
ジムがしなかったJim is the one that did not do.Past Tense
ボブも行かなかったBob also did not go.Past Tense
お金がなかったThere was no money. (lit: As for money, did not exist.)Past Tense
私は買わなかったAs for me, did not buy.Past Tense
猫はいなかったThere was no cat. (lit: As for cat, did not exist.)Past Tense
食べる。Eat fish.Particles used with verbs
ジュース飲んだ。Drank juice.Particles used with verbs
毎日、日本語を勉強するStudy Japanese everyday.Particles used with verbs
メールアドレスを登録したRegistered email address.Particles used with verbs
ボブは日本行った。Bob went to Japan.Particles used with verbs
帰らない。Not go back home.Particles used with verbs
部屋くる。Come to room.Particles used with verbs
アリスは、アメリカからきた。Alice came from America.Particles used with verbs
宿題を今日から明日までする。Will do homework from today to tomorrow.Particles used with verbs
猫は部屋いる。Cat is in room.Particles used with verbs
いすが台所あった。Chair was in the kitchen.Particles used with verbs
いい友達会った。Met good friend.Particles used with verbs
ジムは医者なる。Jim will become doctor.Particles used with verbs
先週に図書館行った。Went to library last week.Particles used with verbs
ボブは日本行った。Bob headed towards Japan.Particles used with verbs
帰らない。Not go home toward house.Particles used with verbs
部屋くる。Come towards room.Particles used with verbs
勝ち向かう。Go towards victory.Particles used with verbs
映画館見た。Saw at movie theater.Particles used with verbs
バス帰る。Go home by bus.Particles used with verbs
レストラン昼ご飯を食べた。Ate lunch at restaurant.Particles used with verbs
きた?Came by the way of what?Particles used with verbs
バスきた。Came by the way of bus.Particles used with verbs
Why did you come?
Because I am free (as in have nothing to do).
Particles used with verbs
日本語習う。Learn Japanese.Particles used with verbs
日本語、習う。About Japanese, (will) learn it.Particles used with verbs
私が電気つけた。I am the one that turned on the lights.Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
電気ついた。The lights turned on.Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
電気消す。Turn off the lights.Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
電気消える。Lights turn off.Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
誰が窓開けた?Who opened the window?Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
どうして開いた?Why has the window opened?Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
部屋出た。I left room.Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
ナイフフォークでステーキを食べた。Ate steak by means of knife and fork.Noun-related Particles
雑誌葉書を買った。Bought book, magazine, and post card.Noun-related Particles
友達話した。Talked with friend.Noun-related Particles
先生会った。Met with teacher.Noun-related Particles
飲み物カップナプキンは、いらない?You don’t need (things like) drink, cup, or napkin, etc.?Noun-related Particles
シャツを買う。Buy (things like) shoes and shirt, etc…Noun-related Particles
飲み物とかカップとかナプキンは、いらない?You don’t need (things like) drink, cup, or napkin, etc.?Noun-related Particles
とかシャツを買う。Buy (things like) shoes and shirt, etc…Noun-related Particles
ボブ本。Book of Bob.
(Bob's Book)
Noun-related Particles
ボブは、アメリカ大学学生だ。Bob is student of college of America.
(Bob is a student of an American college.)
Noun-related Particles
白いのは、かわいい。Thing that is white is cute.Noun-related Particles
授業に行くのを忘れた。Forgot the event of going to class.Noun-related Particles
ボブは朝ご飯を早く食べた。Bob quickly ate breakfast.Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles
アリスは自分の部屋をきれいにした。Alice did her own room toward clean.
(Alice cleaned her room.)
Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles
映画をたくさん見た。Saw a lot of movies.Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles
最近、全然食べない。Lately, don’t eat at all.Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles
ボブ:いい天気だBob: Good weather, huh?Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles
アリス:そうAlice: That is so, isn’t it?Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles
アリス:時間がないAlice: You know, there is no time.Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles
アリス:ボブは、魚が好きなんだよねAlice: You know, you like fish, dontcha?Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles


明日、映画を見に行く。Tomorrow, go to see movie.Polite Form and Verb Stems
昨日、友達が遊びにきた。Yesterday, friend came to play.Polite Form and Verb Stems
明日、大学に行きますTomorrow, go to college.Polite Form and Verb Stems
先週、ボブに会いましたよ。You know, met Bob last week.Polite Form and Verb Stems
晩ご飯を食べませんでしたね。Didn’t eat dinner, huh?Polite Form and Verb Stems
面白くない映画は見ませんAbout not interesting movies, do not see (them).Polite Form and Verb Stems
子犬はとても好きですAbout puppies, like very much. (The most natural translation is that someone likes puppies very much but there is not enough context to rule out that the puppies like something very much.)Polite Form and Verb Stems
昨日、時間がなかったんですIt was that there was no time yesterday.Polite Form and Verb Stems
その部屋はあまり静かじゃないですThat room is not very quiet.Polite Form and Verb Stems
先週に見た映画は、とても面白かったですMovie saw last week was very interesting.Polite Form and Verb Stems
その部屋はあまり静かじゃないですよ。You know, that room is not very quiet.Polite Form and Verb Stems
その部屋はあまり静かじゃありませんよ。You know, that room is not very quiet.Polite Form and Verb Stems
そうと思いますI think that is so.Polite Form and Verb Stems
田中さん:お母さんはどこですTanaka-san: Where is (your) mother?The Question Marker
キムさん:イタリア料理を食べに行きませんKim-san: Go to eat Italian food?The Question Marker
こんなのを本当に食べるDo you think [he/she] will really eat this type of thing?The Question Marker
そんなのは、あるよ!Do I look like I would have something like that?!The Question Marker
そんなのは、あるDo you have something like that?The Question Marker
昨日何を食べたか忘れた。Forgot what I ate yesterday.The Question Marker
彼は何を言ったか分からない。Don’t understand what he said.The Question Marker
先生が学校に行ったか教えない?Won’t you inform me whether teacher went to school?The Question Marker
先生が学校に行ったかどうか知らない。Don’t know whether or not teacher went to school.The Question Marker
先生が学校に行ったか行かなかったか知らない。Don’t know whether teacher went to school or didn’t.The Question Marker
誰かがおいしいクッキーを全部食べた。Someone ate all the delicious cookies.The Question Marker
誰が盗んだのか、誰か知りませんか。Doesn’t anybody know who stole it?The Question Marker
犯人をどこかで見ましたか。Did you see the criminal somewhere?The Question Marker
この中からどれかを選ぶの。(Explaining) You are to select a certain one from inside this (selection).The Question Marker
この質問の答えは、誰も知らない。Nobody knows the answer of this question.The Question Marker
友達はいつも遅れる。Friend is always late.The Question Marker
ここにあるレストランはどれもおいしくない 。Any and all restaurants that are here are not tasty.The Question Marker
今週末は、どこにも行かなかった。Went nowhere this weekend.The Question Marker
この質問の答えは、誰でも分かる。Anybody understands the answer of this question.The Question Marker
昼ご飯は、どこでもいいです。About lunch, anywhere is good.The Question Marker
あの人は、本当に何でも食べる。That person really eats anything.The Question Marker
私の部屋は、きれい、静か、とても好き。My room is clean, quiet, and I like it a lot.Compound Sentences
彼女は、学生じゃなくて、先生だ。She is not a student, she is a teacher.Compound Sentences
田中さんは、お金持ち、かっこよくて、魅力的ですね。Tanaka-san is rich, handsome, and charming, isn’t he?Compound Sentences
食堂に行って、昼ご飯を食べて、昼寝をする。I will go to cafeteria, eat lunch, and take a nap.Compound Sentences
食堂に行って、昼ご飯を食べて、昼寝をした。I went to cafeteria, ate lunch, and took a nap.Compound Sentences
時間がありまして、映画を見ました。There was time and I watched a movie.Compound Sentences
時間がなかったからパーティーに行きませんでした。There was no time so didn’t go to party.Compound Sentences
友達からプレゼントが来た。Present came from friend.Compound Sentences
友達だからプレゼントが来た。Present came because (the person is) friend. (This sentence sounds a bit odd.)Compound Sentences
山田さん:時間がなかったからです。Yamada-san: It’s because I didn’t have time.Compound Sentences
直子:うん、時間がなかったからNaoko: Yeah, because I didn’t have time.Compound Sentences
一郎:だからパーティーに行かなかったの?Ichiro: Is that why you didn’t go to the party?Compound Sentences
ちょっと忙しいので、そろそろ失礼します。Because I’m a little busy, I’ll be making my leave soon.Compound Sentences
私は学生ので、お金がないんです。Because I’m a student, I have no money (lit: there is no money).Compound Sentences
ここは静かので、とても穏やかです。It is very calm here because it is quiet.Compound Sentences
ので、友達に会う時間がない。That’s why there’s no time to meet friend.Compound Sentences
時間がなかったんでパーティーに行かなかった。Didn’t go to the party because there was no time.Compound Sentences
ここは静かなんで、とても穏やかです。It is very calm here because it is quiet.Compound Sentences
なんで、友達に会う時間がない。That’s why there’s no time to meet friend.Compound Sentences
毎日運動したのに、全然痩せなかった。Despite exercising every day, I didn’t get thinner.Compound Sentences
学生なのに、彼女は勉強しない。Despite being a student, she does not study.Compound Sentences
デパートに行きました、何も欲しくなかったです。I went to department store but there was nothing I wanted.Compound Sentences
友達に聞いたけど、知らなかった。I asked (or heard from) a friend but he (or I) didn’t know.Compound Sentences
今日は暇だけど、明日は忙しい。I’m free today but I will be busy tomorrow.Compound Sentences
だけど、彼がまだ好きなの。That may be so, but it is that I still like him. [explanation, feminine tone]Compound Sentences
デパートに行きました、いい物がたくさんありました。I went to the department store and there was a lot of good stuff.Compound Sentences
マトリックスを見たけど、面白かった。I watched the “Matrix” and it was interesting.Compound Sentences
B:先生だし、年上だし・・・。B: Well, he’s/she’s the teacher, and older…Compound Sentences
B:優しい、かっこいい、面白いから。B: Because he’s kind, attractive, and interesting (among other things).Compound Sentences
映画を見たり、本を読んだり昼寝したりする。I do things like (among other things) watch movies, read books, and take naps.Compound Sentences
この大学の授業は簡単だったり難しかったりする。Class of this college is sometimes easy, sometimes difficult (and other times something else maybe).Compound Sentences
映画を見たり、本を読んだりしたI did things like (among other things) watch movies, and read books.Compound Sentences
映画を見たり、本を読んだりしないI don’t do things like (among other things) watch movies, and read books.Compound Sentences
映画を見たり、本を読んだりしなかったI didn’t do things like (among other things) watch movies, and read books.Compound Sentences
A:友達は何をしているの?A: What is friend doing?Other uses of the te-form
B:昼ご飯を食べているB: (Friend) is eating lunch.Other uses of the te-form
A:何を読んでいるA: What are you reading?Other uses of the te-form
B: 教科書を読んでいますB: I am reading textbook.Other uses of the te-form
A: 話を聞いていますかA: Are you listening to me? (lit: Are you listening to story?)Other uses of the te-form
B: ううん、聞いていないB: No, I’m not listening.Other uses of the te-form
A:友達は何をしてるの?A: What is friend doing?Other uses of the te-form
B:昼ご飯を食べてるB: (Friend) is eating lunch.Other uses of the te-form
A:何を読んでるA: What are you reading?Other uses of the te-form
B:教科書を読んでいますB: I am reading textbook.Other uses of the te-form
A:話を聞いていますかA: Are you listening to me? (lit: Are you listening to story?)Other uses of the te-form
B:ううん、聞いてないB: No, I’m not listening.Other uses of the te-form
今日、知りましたI found out about it today. (I did the action of knowing today.)Other uses of the te-form
この歌を知っていますか?Do (you) know this song?Other uses of the te-form
道は分かりますか。Do you know the way? (lit: Do (you) understand the road?)Other uses of the te-form
はい、はい、分かった分かったYes, yes, I got it, I got it.Other uses of the te-form
もう、家に帰っているHe is already at home (went home and is there now).Other uses of the te-form
先に行っているよ。I’ll go on ahead. (I’ll go and be there before you.)Other uses of the te-form
美恵ちゃんは、もう来ているよ。Mie-chan is already here, you know. (She came and is here.)Other uses of the te-form
B:準備は、もうしてあるよB: The preparations are already done.Other uses of the te-form
B:うん、切符を買ったし、ホテルの予約もしてあるB: Uh huh, not only did I buy the ticket, I also took care of the hotel reservations.Other uses of the te-form
晩ご飯を作っておくMake dinner (in advance for the future).Other uses of the te-form
電池を買っておきますI’ll buy batteries (in advance for the future).Other uses of the te-form
晩ご飯を作っとくMake dinner (in advance for the future).Other uses of the te-form
電池を買っときますI’ll buy batteries (in advance for the future).Other uses of the te-form
えんぴつを持っているDo (you) have a pencil?Other uses of the te-form
鉛筆を学校へ持っていくAre (you) taking pencil to school?Other uses of the te-form
鉛筆を家に持ってくるAre (you) bringing pencil to home?Other uses of the te-form
お父さんは、早く帰ってきましたFather came back home early.Other uses of the te-form
駅の方へ走っていったWent running toward the direction of station.Other uses of the te-form
一生懸命、頑張っていくWill try my hardest (toward the future) with all my might!Other uses of the te-form
色々な人と付き合ってきたけど、いい人はまだ見つからない。Went out (up to the present) with various types of people but a good person hasn’t been found yet.Other uses of the te-form
日本語をずっと前から勉強してきて、結局はやめた。Studied Japanese from way back before and eventually quit.Other uses of the te-form
漢字は書けますかCan you write kanji?Potential Form
残念だが、今週末は行けないIt’s unfortunate, but can’t go this weekend.Potential Form
もう信じられないI can’t believe it already.Potential Form
富士山登れた。Was able to climb Fuji-san.Potential Form
重い荷物持てます。Am able to hold heavy baggage.Potential Form
久しぶりに彼の声が聞けたI was able to hear his voice for the first time in a long time.Potential Form
周りがうるさくて、彼が言っていることがあんまり聞こえなかったThe surroundings were noisy and I couldn’t hear what he was saying very well.Potential Form
そんなことはありうるThat kind of situation/event is possible (lit: can exist).Potential Form
そんなことはありえるThat kind of situation/event is possible (lit: can exist).Potential Form
そんなことはありえないThat kind of situation/event is not possible (lit: cannot exist).Potential Form
彼が寝坊したこともありうるね。It’s also possible that he overslept. (lit: The event that he overslept also possibly exists.)Potential Form
それは、ありえない話だよ。That’s an impossible story/scenario. (lit: That story/scenario cannot exist.)Potential Form
彼の日本語が上手になったHis Japanese has become skillful.Using する and なる with the に particle
私は医者になったI became a doctor.Using する and なる with the に particle
私は有名な人になるI will become a famous person.Using する and なる with the に particle
私は、ハンバーガーとサラダにしますI’ll have the hamburger and salad. (lit: I’ll do toward hamburger and salad.)Using する and なる with the に particle
他にいいものがたくさんあるけど、やっぱりこれにする。There are a lot of other good things, but as I thought, I’ll go with this one.Using する and なる with the に particle
去年から背が高くなったね。Your height has gotten taller from last year, huh?Using する and なる with the に particle
運動しているから、強くなるI will become stronger because I am exercising.Using する and なる with the に particle
勉強をたくさんしたから、頭がよくなったSince I studied a lot, I became smarter. (lit: head became better)Using する and なる with the に particle
海外に行くことになった。It’s been decided that I will go abroad. (lit: It became the event of going abroad.)Using する and なる with the に particle
毎日、肉を食べるようになった。It became so that I eat meat everyday. (lit: It became the appearance of eating meat everyday.)Using する and なる with the に particle
海外に行くことにした。I decided I will go abroad. (lit: I did toward the event of going abroad.)Using する and なる with the に particle
毎日、肉を食べるようにする。I will try to eat meat everyday. (lit: I will do toward the manner of eating meat everyday.)Using する and なる with the に particle
日本に来て、寿司が食べられるようになったAfter coming to Japan, I became able to eat sushi.Using する and なる with the に particle
一年間練習したから、ピアノが弾けるようになったBecause I practiced for one year, I became able to play the piano.Using する and なる with the に particle
地下に入って、富士山が見えなくなったAfter going underground, Fuji-san became not visible.Using する and なる with the に particle
ボールを落す落ちる。If you drop the ball, it will fall.Conditionals
電気を消す暗くなる。If you turn off the lights, it will get dark.Conditionals
学校に行かない友達と会えないよ。If you don’t go to school, you can’t meet your friends.Conditionals
たくさん食べる太るよ。If you eat a lot, you will get fat, for sure.Conditionals
先生だと、きっと年上なんじゃないですか?If he’s a teacher, he must be older for sure, right?Conditionals
みんなが行くなら私も行く。If given that everybody is going, then I’ll go too.Conditionals
アリスさんが言うなら問題ないよ。If given that Alice-san says so, there’s no problem.Conditionals
ボブ:図書館なら、あそこです。Bob: If given that you’re talking about the library, then it’s over there.Conditionals
友達に会えれ、買い物に行きます。If I can meet with my friend, we will go shopping.Conditionals
お金があれいいね。If I had money, it would be good, huh?Conditionals
楽しければ、私も行く。If it’s fun, I’ll go too.Conditionals
楽しくなければ、私も行かない。If it’s not fun, I’ll also not go.Conditionals
食べなければ病気になるよ。If you don’t eat, you will become sick.Conditionals
暇だったら、遊びに行くよ。If I am free, I will go play.Conditionals
学生だったら、学生割引で買えます。If you’re a student, you can buy with a student discount.Conditionals
A:友達に会えれ、買い物に行きます。A: We will go shopping, if I can meet with my friend.Conditionals
B:友達に会えたら、買い物に行きます。B: If I can meet with my friend, we will go shopping.Conditionals
A:お金があれいいね。A: It would be good, if I had money, huh?Conditionals
B:お金があったらいいね。B: If I had money, it would be good, huh?Conditionals
もしよかったら、映画を観に行きますか?If by any chance it’s ok with you, go to watch movie?Conditionals
もし時間がないなら、明日でもいいよ。If given that there’s no time, tomorrow is fine as well. (Not certain whether there is no time)Conditionals
ここに入ってはいけません。You must not enter here.Expressing “must” or “have to”
それを食べてはだめ!You can’t (must not) eat that!Expressing “must” or “have to”
夜、遅くまで電話してはならない。You must not use the phone until late at night.Expressing “must” or “have to”
早く寝てはなりませんでした。Wasn’t allowed to sleep early.Expressing “must” or “have to”
毎日学校に行かなくてはなりません。Must go to school everyday.Expressing “must” or “have to”
宿題をしなくてはいけなかったHad to do homework.Expressing “must” or “have to”
毎日学校に行かないとだめです。Must go to school everyday.Expressing “must” or “have to”
宿題をしないといけないHave to do homework.Expressing “must” or “have to”
毎日学校に行かなければいけません。Must go to school everyday.Expressing “must” or “have to”
宿題をしなければだめだった。Had to do homework.Expressing “must” or “have to”
勉強しなくちゃGotta study.Expressing “must” or “have to”
ご飯を食べなきゃGotta eat.Expressing “must” or “have to”
学校に行かないGotta go to school.Expressing “must” or “have to”
ここに入っちゃだめだよ。You can’t enter here.Expressing “must” or “have to”
全部食べてもいいよ。You can go ahead and eat it all. (lit: Even if you eat it all, it’s good, you know.)Expressing “must” or “have to”
全部食べなくてもいいよ。You don’t have to eat it all. (lit: Even if you don’t eat it all, it’s good, you know.)Expressing “must” or “have to”
全部飲んでも大丈夫だよ。It’s ok if you drink it all. (lit: Even if you drink it all, it’s OK, you know.)Expressing “must” or “have to”
全部飲んでも構わないよ。I don’t mind if you drink it all. (lit: Even if you drink it all, I don’t mind, you know.)Expressing “must” or “have to”
もう帰っいいCan I go home already?Expressing “must” or “have to”
これ、ちょっと見いいCan I take a quick look at this?Expressing “must” or “have to”
何をしたいですか。What do you want to do?Desire and Suggestions
温泉に行きたいI want to go to hot spring.Desire and Suggestions
ケーキ、食べたくないの?You don’t want to eat cake?Desire and Suggestions
食べたくなかったけど食べたくなった。I didn’t want to eat it but I became wanting to eat.Desire and Suggestions
ずっと一緒にいたいI want to be together forever. (lit: Want to exist together for long time.)Desire and Suggestions
犬と遊びたいですか。Do you want to play with dog?Desire and Suggestions
大きい縫いぐるみが欲しいI want a big stuffed doll!Desire and Suggestions
全部食べてほしいんだけど・・・。I want it all eaten but…Desire and Suggestions
部屋をきれいにしてほしいのよ。It is that I want the room cleaned up, you know.Desire and Suggestions
今日は何をしようか?What shall (we) do today?Desire and Suggestions
テーマパークに行こうLet’s go to theme park!Desire and Suggestions
明日は何を食べようか?What shall (we) eat tomorrow?Desire and Suggestions
カレーを食べようLet’s eat curry!Desire and Suggestions
今日は何をしましょうか?What shall (we) do today?Desire and Suggestions
テーマパークに行きましょうLet’s go to theme park!Desire and Suggestions
明日は何を食べましょうか?What shall (we) eat tomorrow?Desire and Suggestions
カレーを食べましょうLet’s eat curry!Desire and Suggestions
銀行に行ったらどうですか。How about going to bank?Desire and Suggestions
たまにご両親と話せばどうHow about talking with your parents once in a while?Desire and Suggestions
アリスが、「寒い」と言った。Alice said, “Cold”.Acting on relative clauses
「今日は授業がない」と先生から聞いたんだけど。It is that I heard from the teacher, “There is no class today.”Acting on relative clauses
「寒い」とアリスが田中に言った“Cold,” Alice said to Tanaka.Acting on relative clauses
先生から今日は授業がないと聞いたんだけど。I heard from the teacher that there is no class today.Acting on relative clauses
これは、日本語で何と言いますか。What do you call this in Japanese? (lit: About this, what do you say in Japanese?)Acting on relative clauses
私は、アリスと言いますI am called Alice. (lit: As for me, you say Alice.)Acting on relative clauses
カレーを食べようと思ったけど、食べる時間がなかった。I thought about setting out to eat curry but I didn’t have time to eat.Acting on relative clauses
今、どこに行こうかと考えているNow, I’m considering where to set out to go.Acting on relative clauses
彼は、これは何だと言いましたか。What did he say this is?Acting on relative clauses
彼は高校生だと聞いたけど、信じられない。I heard that he is a high school student but I can’t believe it.Acting on relative clauses
これは何だと言いましたか。What did (he) say this is?Acting on relative clauses
言いましたか。What did (he) say?Acting on relative clauses
智子は来年、海外に行くんだってTomoko said that she’s going overseas next year.Acting on relative clauses
もうお金がないってI already told you I have no money.Acting on relative clauses
え?何だってHuh? What did you say?Acting on relative clauses
今、時間がないって聞いたんだけど、本当?I heard you don’t have time now, is that true?Acting on relative clauses
今、時間がないって、本当?You don’t have time now (I heard), is that true?Acting on relative clauses
明日って、雨が降るんだってAbout tomorrow, I hear that it’s going to rain.Acting on relative clauses
アリスって、すごくいい人でしょ?About Alice, she’s a very good person, right?Acting on relative clauses
私はアリスといいますI am called Alice. (lit: As for me, you say Alice.)Defining and Describing
これは、なんという魚ですか。What is this fish referred to as?Defining and Describing
この魚は、鯛といいますThis fish is known as “Tai“.Defining and Describing
ルミネというデパートはどこにあるか、知っていますか?Do you know where the department store called “Lumine” is?Defining and Describing
「友達」は、英語で「friend」という意味です。The meaning of “tomodachi” in English is “friend”.Defining and Describing
主人公が犯人だったというのが一番面白かった。The most interesting thing was that the main character was the criminal.Defining and Describing
日本人はお酒に弱いというのは本当?Is it true that Japanese people are weak to alcohol?Defining and Describing
独身だというのは、嘘だったの?It was a lie that you were single?Defining and Describing
リブートというのは、パソコンを再起動するということです。Reboot means to restart your computer.Defining and Describing
あんたは、いつもこういう時に来るんだから、困るんだよ。It’s because you always come at times like these that I’m troubled.Defining and Describing
そういう人と一緒に仕事をするのは、嫌だよね。(Anybody would) dislike doing work together with that type of person, huh?Defining and Describing
ああいう人と結婚できたら、幸せになれると思います。I think you can become happy if you could marry that type of person.Defining and Describing
大学に行かないって、どういう意味なの?What do you mean, “You’re not going to go to college?”Defining and Describing
B:う~ん、彼女というか、友達というか、なんというか・・・B:Um, you might say girlfriend, or friend, or something…Defining and Describing
お酒は好きというか、ないと生きていけない。I like alcohol or rather, can’t live on without it.Defining and Describing
多分行かないと思う。というか、お金がないから、行けない。Don’t think I’ll go. Or rather, can’t because there’s no money.Defining and Describing
というか、もう帰らないとだめですけど。Rather than that, I have to go home already.Defining and Describing
B:ということは、みきちゃんは、今彼氏がいないということB: Does that mean Miki-chan doesn’t have a boyfriend now?Defining and Describing
A:そう。そういうことA: That’s right. That’s what it means.Defining and Describing
来年留学するというのは、智子のこと?The studying abroad next year thing, is that Tomoko?Defining and Describing
来年留学するって智子のこと?The studying abroad next year thing, is that Tomoko?Defining and Describing
B:だって、時間がないからできないよ。B: But (even so), can’t do it because there is no time.Defining and Describing
B:だって、みんな行くって。私も行かないと。B: But (even so), everybody said they’re going. I have to go too.Defining and Describing
ことは、みきちゃんは、今彼氏がいないこと?Does that mean Miki-chan doesn’t have a boyfriend now?Defining and Describing
いうか、もう帰らないとだめですけど。Rather than that, I have to go home already.Defining and Describing
みきちゃんが、明日こないってMiki-chan says she isn’t coming tomorrow.Defining and Describing
ゆうか、もう帰らないとだめですけど。Rather than that, I have to go home already.Defining and Describing
そうゆうことじゃないって!I said it’s not like that (lit: it’s not that type of thing)!Defining and Describing
お好み焼きを初めて食べてみたけど、とてもおいしかった!I tried eating okonomiyaki for the first time and it was very tasty!Trying or attempting something
お酒を飲んでみましたが、すごく眠くなりました。I tried drinking alcohol and I became extremely sleepy.Trying or attempting something
新しいデパートに行ってみるI’m going to check out the new department store.Trying or attempting something
広島のお好み焼きを食べてみたいI want to try eating Hiroshima okonomiyaki!Trying or attempting something
毎日、勉強を避けようとするEveryday, she attempts to avoid study.Trying or attempting something
無理矢理に部屋に入ろうとしているHe is attempting to force his way into the room.Trying or attempting something
早く寝ようとしたけど、結局は徹夜した。I attempted to sleep early but ended up staying up all night.Trying or attempting something
お酒を飲もうとしたが、奥さんが止めた。He tried to drink alcohol but his wife stopped him.Trying or attempting something
勉強をなるべく避けようと思ったI thought I would attempt to avoid studying as much as possible.Trying or attempting something
毎日ジムに行こうと決めたDecided to attempt to go to gym everyday.Trying or attempting something
私が友達にプレゼントをあげたI gave present to friend.Giving and Receiving
これは先生にあげるI’ll give this to teacher.Giving and Receiving
車を買ってあげるよ。I’ll give you the favor of buying a car.Giving and Receiving
代わりに行ってあげるI’ll give you the favor of going in your place.Giving and Receiving
学生がこれを先生にあげるThe student give this to teacher. (looking at it from the student’s point of view)Giving and Receiving
友達が父にいいことを教えてあげたFriend gave the favor of teaching something good to my dad. (looking at it from the friend’s point of view)Giving and Receiving
犬に餌をやったDid you give the dog food?Giving and Receiving
友達が私にプレゼントをくれたFriend gave present to me.Giving and Receiving
これは、先生がくれたTeacher gave this to me.Giving and Receiving
車を買ってくれるの?You’ll give me the favor of buying a car for me?Giving and Receiving
代わりに行ってくれるWill you give me the favor of going in my place?Giving and Receiving
先生がこれを学生にくれるThe teacher give this to student. (looking at it from the student’s point of view)Giving and Receiving
友達が父にいいことを教えてくれたFriend gave favor of teaching something good to my dad. (looking at it from the dad’s point of view)Giving and Receiving
先生が教えてあげるんですか。Teacher, will you be the one to give favor of teaching to… [anybody other than the speaker]?Giving and Receiving
先生が教えてくれるんですか。Teacher, will you be the one to give favor of teaching to… [anybody including the speaker]?Giving and Receiving
私が全部食べてあげましたI gave favor of eating it all. (Correct)Giving and Receiving
私が友達プレゼントをもらったI received present from friend.Giving and Receiving
友達からプレゼントをもらったI received present from friend.Giving and Receiving
これは友達に買ってもらったAbout this, received the favor of buying it from friend.Giving and Receiving
宿題をチェックしてもらいたかったけど、時間がなくて無理だった。I wanted to receive the favor of checking homework but there was no time and it was impossible.Giving and Receiving
あなたが私に千円を貸してくれる?Will you give me the favor of lending 1000 yen?Giving and Receiving
私があなたに千円を貸してもらえる?Can I receive the favor of you lending 1000 yen?Giving and Receiving
ちょっと静かにしてくれないWon’t you be a little quieter?Giving and Receiving
漢字で書いてもらえませんか。Can you write this in kanji for me?Giving and Receiving
全部食べないくれますか。Can you not eat it all?Giving and Receiving
高い物を買わないくれる?Can you not buy expensive thing(s)?Giving and Receiving
それをくださいPlease give me that.Making Requests
それをくれるCan you give me that?Making Requests
漢字で書いてください。Please write it in kanji.Making Requests
ゆっくり話してください。Please speak slowly.Making Requests
落書きを書かないでください。Please don’t write graffiti.Making Requests
ここにこないでください。Please don’t come here.Making Requests
日本語で話してPlease speak in Japanese.Making Requests
消しゴムを貸してPlease lend me the eraser.Making Requests
遠い所に行かないでPlease don’t go to a far place.Making Requests
日本語で話してくれSpeak in Japanese.Making Requests
消しゴムを貸してくれLend me the eraser.Making Requests
遠い所に行かないでくれDon’t go to a far place.Making Requests
お父さんがくれた時計が壊れた。The clock that father gave broke.Making Requests
「それをください」お父さんが言った。Father said, “Please give me that.”Making Requests
スプーンをちょうだいPlease give me the spoon.Making Requests
ここに名前を書いてちょうだいPlease write your name here.Making Requests
よく聞きなさい!Listen well!Making Requests
ここに座りなさい。Sit here.Making Requests
まだいっぱいあるから、たくさん食べなThere’s still a lot, so eat a lot.Making Requests
それでいいと思うなら、そうしなよ。If you think that’s fine, then go ahead and do it.Making Requests
好きにしろDo as you please.Making Requests
あっち行けGo away!Making Requests
早く酒を持ってきてくれHurry up and bring me some alcohol.Making Requests
それを食べるDon’t eat that!Making Requests
変なことを言うDon’t say such weird things!Making Requests
サラリーマンだから、残業はたくさんするんじゃないBecause he’s a salaryman, doesn’t he do a lot of overtime?Casual Patterns and Slang
ほら、やっぱりレポートを書かないとだめじゃんSee, as I thought, you have to write the report.

Casual Patterns and Slang
誰もいないからここで着替えてもいいじゃんSince there’s nobody, it’s probably fine to change here.Casual Patterns and Slang
A:あっ!やっぱ、いるじゃんA: Ah! See, he is here!Casual Patterns and Slang
A:駅の近くにカラオケがあるじゃんかA: There’s a karaoke place near the station, right?Casual Patterns and Slang
つうか、なんでお前がここにいんのよ!Or rather, why are you here?!Casual Patterns and Slang
宿題で時間がないつってんのに、みきちゃんとデートしにいったと聞いたよ。Although he’s saying he doesn’t have time due to homework, I heard he went on a date with Miki-chan.Casual Patterns and Slang
明日は試験だぞ。つっても、勉強はしてないだろうな。Yo, tomorrow’s the test. Even if I say that, you probably didn’t study anyway, huh?Casual Patterns and Slang
だから、違うんだつうの!Like I said, you’re wrong!Casual Patterns and Slang
だから、違うんだっつうの!Like I said, you’re wrong!Casual Patterns and Slang
もう行くってばI told you I’m going already!Casual Patterns and Slang
あなたったら、いつも忘れるんだから。You’re always forgetting.Casual Patterns and Slang
なにか食べる?Eat something?Casual Patterns and Slang
なんか食べる?Eat something?Casual Patterns and Slang
今日は、なんか忙しいみたいよ。I guess he’s like busy today.Casual Patterns and Slang
なんかね。お風呂って超気持ちいいよね!Like, baths feel really good, huh?Casual Patterns and Slang
お母さんが、なんか明日まで戻らないんだってよ。Mom said she’s not coming back until like tomorrow.Casual Patterns and Slang
なんかさ。ボブは、私のことなんか本当に好きかな?-Hey like, do you really think that Bob likes somebody like me?Casual Patterns and Slang
あんなやつに負けやがって。じゃ、どうすんだよ?Losing to a guy like that. Well, what are you going to do?Casual Patterns and Slang
やる気か?だったらさっさと来やがれYou want to fight? If so, then hurry up and come on!Casual Patterns and Slang
A:あの・・・A: Hey…Review and more sentence-ending particles
A:この間・・・A: This one time…Review and more sentence-ending particles
A:ディズニーランドに行ったんだけど、なんか、すごい込んでて・・・A: I went to Disney Land and it was really crowded…Review and more sentence-ending particles
A:何もできなくて・・・A: Couldn’t do anything, you know…Review and more sentence-ending particles
洋介:今、図書館に行くんだよYousuke: You are going to the library now huh? (seeking explanation)Review and more sentence-ending particles
ボブ:日本語は、たくさん勉強したけど。まだ全然わからない。Bob: I studied Japanese a lot, right? But, I still don’t get it at all.Review and more sentence-ending particles
アリス:大丈夫よ。きっとわかるようになるからAlice: No problem. You’ll become able to understand for sure, you know?Review and more sentence-ending particles
ボブ:ならいいけどBob: If so, it would be good.Review and more sentence-ending particles
今日は雨が降るかなI wonder if it’ll rain today.Review and more sentence-ending particles
いい大学に行けるかなI wonder if I can go to a good college.Review and more sentence-ending particles
おい、どこに行くんだいHey, where are (you) going?Review and more sentence-ending particles
さきちゃんって呼んでもいいかいCan (I) call you Saki-chan?Review and more sentence-ending particles
一体何時に帰ってくるつもりだったんだいWhat time were (you) planning on coming home exactly?Review and more sentence-ending particles
俺は土曜日、映画を見に行くけど、一緒に行くかいI’m going to see a movie Saturday, go together?Review and more sentence-ending particles
もう時間がないThere is no more time.Review and more sentence-ending particles
おい、行くHey, we’re going!Review and more sentence-ending particles
これで、もう終わりだWith this, it’s over already.Review and more sentence-ending particles
いい大学に入れるかしらI wonder if I can enter a good college.Review and more sentence-ending particles


全部食べさせたMade/Let (someone) eat it all.Causative and Passive Verbs
全部食べさせてくれたLet (someone) eat it all.Causative and Passive Verbs
先生が学生に宿題をたくさんさせたTeacher made students do lots of homework.Causative and Passive Verbs
先生が質問をたくさん聞かせてくれたTeacher let (someone) ask lots of questions.Causative and Passive Verbs
今日は仕事を休ませてくださいPlease let me rest from work today. (Please let me take the day off today.)Causative and Passive Verbs
その部長は、よく長時間働かせるThat manager often makes (people) work long hours.Causative and Passive Verbs
トイレに行かせてくれますか。Can you let me go to the bathroom? (Sounds like a prisoner, even in English)Causative and Passive Verbs
トイレに行ってもいいですか。Is it ok to go to the bathroom? (No problem here)Causative and Passive Verbs
同じことを何回も言わすなDon’t make me say the same thing again and again!Causative and Passive Verbs
お腹空いているんだから、なんか食べさしてくれよ。I’m hungry so let me eat something.Causative and Passive Verbs
ポリッジが誰かに食べられたThe porridge was eaten by somebody!Causative and Passive Verbs
みんなに変だと言われますI am told by everybody that (I’m) strange.Causative and Passive Verbs
光の速さを超えるのは、不可能だと思われるExceeding the speed of light is thought to be impossible.Causative and Passive Verbs
この教科書は多くの人に読まれているThis textbook is being read by a large number of people.Causative and Passive Verbs
外国人に質問を聞かれたが、答えられなかった。I was asked a question by a foreigner but I couldn’t answer.Causative and Passive Verbs
このパッケージには、あらゆるものが含まれている。Everything is included in this package.Causative and Passive Verbs
どうするWhat will you do? (lit: How do?)Causative and Passive Verbs
どうしますかWhat will you do? (Regular polite)Causative and Passive Verbs
どうされますかWhat will you do? (Passive polite)Causative and Passive Verbs
どうなさいますかWhat will you do? (Honorific)Causative and Passive Verbs
どうなさいますでしょうかWhat will you do? (Honorific + a lesser degree of certainty)Causative and Passive Verbs
領収証はどうされますか?What about your receipt? (lit: How will you do receipt?)Causative and Passive Verbs
明日の会議に行かれるんですか?Are you going to tomorrow’s meeting?Causative and Passive Verbs
朝ご飯は食べたくなかったのに、食べさせられたDespite not wanting to eat breakfast, I was made to eat it.Causative and Passive Verbs
日本では、お酒を飲ませられることが多い。In Japan, the event of being made to drink is numerous.Causative and Passive Verbs
あいつに二時間も待たせられたI was made to wait 2 hours by that guy.Causative and Passive Verbs
親に毎日宿題をさせられるI am made to do homework everyday by my parent(s).Causative and Passive Verbs
学生が廊下に立たされたThe student was made to stand in the hall.Causative and Passive Verbs
日本では、お酒を飲まされることが多い。In Japan, the event of being made to drink is numerous.Causative and Passive Verbs
あいつに二時間も待たされたI was made to wait 2 hours by that guy.Causative and Passive Verbs
アリスさん、もう召し上がりましたか。Alice-san, did (you) eat already?Honorific and Humble Forms
仕事で何をなさっているんですか。What are you doing at work?Honorific and Humble Forms
推薦状を書いてくださるんですか。You’re going to give me the favor of writing a recommendation letter?Honorific and Humble Forms
どちらからいらっしゃいましたか。Where did you come from?Honorific and Humble Forms
今日は、どちらへいらっしゃいますか。Where are you going today?Honorific and Humble Forms
私はキムと申しますAs for me, (people) say Kim. (I am called Kim.)Honorific and Humble Forms
私が書いたレポートを見ていただけますか。Will I be able to receive the favor of getting my report looked at?Honorific and Humble Forms
失礼致しますExcuse me. (lit: I am doing a discourtesy.)Honorific and Humble Forms
こちらは、私の部屋ですOver here is my room.Honorific and Humble Forms
こちらは、私の部屋でございますThis way is my room.Honorific and Humble Forms
お手洗いはこのビルの二階にありますThe bathroom is on the second floor of this building.Honorific and Humble Forms
お手洗いはこのビルの二階にございますThe bathroom is on the second floor of this building.Honorific and Humble Forms
先生はお見えになりますか。Have you seen the teacher?Honorific and Humble Forms
もうお帰りですか。You’re going home already?Honorific and Humble Forms
店内でお召し上がりですか。Will you be dining in?Honorific and Humble Forms
少々お待ちくださいPlease wait a moment.Honorific and Humble Forms
こちらにご覧下さいPlease look this way.Honorific and Humble Forms
閉まるドアにご注意下さいPlease be careful of the closing doors.Honorific and Humble Forms
よろしくお願いしますI properly make request.Honorific and Humble Forms
先生、お聞きしたいことがありますが。Teacher, there’s something I want to ask you.Honorific and Humble Forms
すみません、お待たせしましたSorry, I made you wait (causative form).Honorific and Humble Forms
千円からお預かりいたしますWe’ll be holding on [from?] your 1000 yen.Honorific and Humble Forms
いらっしゃいませPlease come in!Honorific and Humble Forms
いらっしゃいPlease come in!Honorific and Humble Forms
ありがとうございました。またお越しくださいませThank you very much. Please come again.Honorific and Humble Forms
どうぞ、ごゆっくりなさいませPlease take your time and relax.Honorific and Humble Forms
アリス:しまったAlice: Oh no! (I screwed up!)Unintended Actions
そのケーキを全部食べてしまった。Oops, I ate that whole cake.Unintended Actions
毎日ケーキを食べて、2キロ太ってしまいました。I ate cake everyday and I (unintentionally) gained two kilograms.Unintended Actions
ちゃんと食べないと、痩せてしまいますよ。If you don’t eat properly, you’ll (unintentionally) lose weight you know.Unintended Actions
結局、嫌なことをさせてしまった。In the end, I (unintentionally) made [someone] do something distasteful.Unintended Actions
ごめん、待たせてしまって!Sorry about (unintentionally) making you wait!Unintended Actions
金魚がもう死んでしまった。The goldfish died already (oops).Unintended Actions
金魚がもう死んじゃったThe goldfish died already.Unintended Actions
もう帰っちゃっていい?Is it ok if I went home already?Unintended Actions
みんな、どっか行っちゃったよ。Everybody went off somewhere.Unintended Actions
そろそろ遅くなっちゃうよ。It’ll gradually become late, you know.Unintended Actions
また遅刻しちまったよ。Darn, I’m late again.Unintended Actions
ごめん、ついお前を呼んじまったSorry, I just ended up calling you unconsciously.Unintended Actions
徹夜して、宿題することあるThere are times when I do homework while staying up all night.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
一人で行くことありませんI never go by myself.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
パリに行ったことありますか。Have you ever gone to Paris?Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
お寿司を食べたことあるI’ve had sushi before.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
日本の映画を観たことないの?You’ve never seen a Japanese movie?Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
ヨーロッパに行ったことあったらいいな。It would be nice if I ever go to Europe.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
そういうのを見たことなかったI had never seen anything like that.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
一度行ったことないんです。I’ve never gone, not even once.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
早くきて。映画は今ちょうどいいところだよ。Come quickly. We’re at the good part of the movie.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
彼は優しいところもあるよ。His personality has some gentle parts too.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
今は授業が終ったところです。Class has ended just now.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
これから行くところでした。I was just about to go from now.Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
授業があった(I) had class. [feminine explanatory]Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
授業があったもの(I) had class. [feminine explanatory]Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
授業があったもん(I) had class, so there. [feminine explanatory]Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
スミスさんは食堂に行ったかもしれませんSmith-san may have gone to the cafeteria.Various degrees of certainty
雨で試合は中止になるかもしれないね。The game may become canceled by rain, huh?Various degrees of certainty
この映画は一回観たことあるかもI might have already seen this movie once.Various degrees of certainty
あそこが代々木公園かもしれないThat might be Yoyogi park over there.Various degrees of certainty
もう逃げられないかもしれんぞ。Might not be able to escape anymore, you know.Various degrees of certainty
明日も雨でしょうProbably rain tomorrow too.Various degrees of certainty
学生さんでしょうか。Are (you) student?Various degrees of certainty
これからどこへ行くんでしょうか?Where (are you) going from here?Various degrees of certainty
B:だから、時間がないって言ったでしょうB: That’s why I told you there was no time!Various degrees of certainty
A:これから食べに行くんでしょA: You’re going to eat from now aren’t you?Various degrees of certainty
A:掃除、手伝ってくれるでしょうA: You’re going to help me clean, right?Various degrees of certainty
B:もう寝ているだろうB: Probably sleeping already.Various degrees of certainty
A:もう家に帰るんだろうA: You’re going home already, right?Various degrees of certainty
りんごだけJust apple(s) (and nothing else).Expressing Amounts
これとそれだけJust that and this (and nothing else).Expressing Amounts
それだけは、食べないでください。Just don’t eat that. (Anything else is assumed to be OK).Expressing Amounts
この歌だけを歌わなかった。Didn’t sing just this song.Expressing Amounts
その人だけが好きだったんだ。That person was the only person I liked.Expressing Amounts
この販売機だけでは、五百円玉が使えない。Cannot use 500 yen coin in just this vending machine.Expressing Amounts
小林さんからだけは、返事が来なかった。A reply has not come from only Kobayashi-san.Expressing Amounts
準備が終わったから、これからは食べるだけだ。Since the preparations are done, from here we just have to eat.Expressing Amounts
ここに名前を書くだけでいいですか?Is it ok to just write [my] name here?Expressing Amounts
この乗車券は発売当日のみ有効です。This boarding ticket is only valid on the date on which it was purchased.Expressing Amounts
アンケート対象は大学生のみです。The targets of this survey are only college students.Expressing Amounts
これしかない。There’s nothing but this.Expressing Amounts
これだけ見る。See just this.Expressing Amounts
これだけ見ない。Don’t see just this.Expressing Amounts
これしか見ない。Don’t see anything else but this.Expressing Amounts
今日は忙しくて、朝ご飯しか食べられなかった。Today was busy and couldn’t eat anything but breakfast.Expressing Amounts
ううん、これしか買わないNah, won’t buy anything else but this.Expressing Amounts
アリスからしか何ももらってない。I didn’t receive anything except from Alice.Expressing Amounts
これから頑張るしかない!There’s nothing to do but try our best!Expressing Amounts
こうなったら、逃げるしかない。There no choice but to run away once it turns out like this.Expressing Amounts
もう腐っているから、捨てるしかないよ。It’s rotten already so there’s nothing to do but throw it out.Expressing Amounts
これは買うっきゃない!There’s nothing but to buy this!

Expressing Amounts
こうなったら、もうやるっきゃない!If things turn out like this, there nothing to do but to just do it!Expressing Amounts
何だよ!おばさんばっかりじゃないか?What the? Isn’t it nothing but obasan?Expressing Amounts
いやだ。おばさんばっかりEww. It’s nothing but obasan.Expressing Amounts
崇君は漫画ばっかり読んでてさ。かっこ悪い。Takashi-kun is reading nothing but comic books… He’s so uncool.Expressing Amounts
彼は麻雀ばかりです。He’s nothing but mahjong. (He does nothing but play mahjong.)Expressing Amounts
直美ちゃんと遊ぶばっかりでしょう!You’re hanging out with Naomi-chan all the time, aren’t you!Expressing Amounts
最近は仕事ばっかだよ。Lately, it’s nothing but work.Expressing Amounts
佐藤さんは料理が上手で、また食べ過ぎましたSatou-san is good at cooking and I ate too much again.Expressing Amounts
お酒を飲みすぎないように気をつけてね。Be careful to not drink too much, ok?Expressing Amounts
大きすぎるからトランクに入らないぞ。It won’t fit in the trunk cause it’s too big, man.Expressing Amounts
静かすぎる。罠かもしれないよ。It’s too quiet. It might be a trap, you know.Expressing Amounts
時間が足りなさすぎて、何もできなかった。Due to too much of a lack of time, I couldn’t do anything.Expressing Amounts
彼には、彼女がもったいなさすぎるよ。She is totally wasted on him (too good for him).Expressing Amounts
B:それは飲みすぎだよ。B: That’s drinking too much.Expressing Amounts
昨日、電話三回もしたよ!I called you like three times yesterday!Expressing Amounts
試験のために三時間も勉強した。I studied three whole hours for the exam.Expressing Amounts
今年、十キロも太っちゃった!I gained 10 whole kilograms this year!Expressing Amounts
今日の天気はそれほど暑くない。Today’s weather is not hot to that extent.Expressing Amounts
寝る時間がないほど忙しい。Busy to the extent that there’s no time to sleep.Expressing Amounts
韓国料理は食べれば食べるほど、おいしくなる。About Korean food, the more you eat the tastier it becomes.Expressing Amounts
歩いたら歩くほど、迷ってしまった。The more I walked, the more I got lost.Expressing Amounts
勉強をすればするほど、頭がよくなるよ。The more you study, the more you will become smarter.Expressing Amounts
iPodは、ハードディスクの容量が大きければ大きいほどもっとたくさんの曲が保存できます。About iPod, the larger the hard disk capacity, the more songs you can save.Expressing Amounts
航空券は安ければ安いほどいいとは限らない。It’s not necessarily the case that the cheaper the ticket, the better it is.Expressing Amounts
文章は、短ければ短いほど、簡単なら簡単なほどよいです。The shorter and simpler the sentences, the better it is.Expressing Amounts
このビルの高さは何ですか?What is the height of this building?Expressing Amounts
犬の聴覚の敏感さを人間と比べると、はるかに上だ。If you compare the level of sensitivity of hearing of dogs to humans, it is far above.Expressing Amounts
ここには、誰もいないようだLooks like no one is here.Similarity or hearsay
映画を観たようですLooks like (he) watched the movie.Similarity or hearsay
学生ようだ。Looks like it’s a student.Similarity or hearsay
ここは静かようだ。Looks like it’s quiet.Similarity or hearsay
あの人を見たよう気がした。Had a feeling like I saw that person before.Similarity or hearsay
彼は学生のよう雰囲気ですね。He has a student-like atmosphere.Similarity or hearsay
ちょっと怒ったよう聞こえた。Was able to hear it like (she) was a little mad.Similarity or hearsay
何も起こらなかったよう言った。Said (it) like nothing happened.Similarity or hearsay
もう売り切れみたいLooks like it’s sold out already.Similarity or hearsay
制服を着ている姿をみると、学生みたいです。Looking at the uniform-wearing figure, (person) looks like a student.Similarity or hearsay
このピザはお好み焼きみたいじゃないDoesn’t this pizza looks like okonomiyaki?Similarity or hearsay
もう売り切れのようだIt appears that it is sold-out already.Similarity or hearsay
このピザはお好み焼きのように見える。This pizza looks like okonomiyaki.Similarity or hearsay
バランスが崩れて、一瞬倒れそうだった。Losing my balance, I seemed likely to fall for a moment.Similarity or hearsay
この辺りにありそうだけどな。It seems likely that it would be around here but…Similarity or hearsay
この漬物はおいしそう!I bet this pickled vegetable is tasty! (This pickled vegetable looks good!)Similarity or hearsay
これも結構よさそうだけど、やっぱり高いよね。This one also seems to be good but, as expected, it’s expensive, huh?Similarity or hearsay
お前なら、金髪の女が好きそうだな。Knowing you, I bet you like blond-haired girls.Similarity or hearsay
もう10時になったから、来なさそうだね。Since it already became 10:00, it’s likely that (person) won’t come.Similarity or hearsay
これはただの試合じゃなさそうだThis isn’t likely to be an ordinary match.Similarity or hearsay
その人は学生でしょうThat person is probably student.Similarity or hearsay
その人は学生だろうThat person is probably student.Similarity or hearsay
明日、雨が降るそうだI hear that it’s going to rain tomorrow.Similarity or hearsay
毎日会いに行ったそうですI heard he went to meet everyday.Similarity or hearsay
彼は、高校生そうです。I hear that he is a high school student.Similarity or hearsay
B:だそうですB: So I hear.Similarity or hearsay
B:こないらしいB: Seems like it (based on what I heard).Similarity or hearsay
B:美由紀さんの友達らしいですよ。B: Seems to be Miyuki-san’s friend (based on what I heard).Similarity or hearsay
あの子は子供らしくないThat child does not act like a child.Similarity or hearsay
大人らしくするつもりだったのに、大騒ぎしてしまった。Despite the fact that I planned to act like an adult, I ended up making a big ruckus.Similarity or hearsay
あの人はちょっと韓国人っぽいよね。That person looks a little like Korean person, huh?Similarity or hearsay
みんなで、もう全部食べてしまったっぽいよ。It appears that everybody ate everything already.Similarity or hearsay
恭子は全然女っぽくないね。Kyouko is not womanly at all, huh?Similarity or hearsay
ご飯の方がおいしいRice is tastier. (lit: The way of rice is tasty.)Using 「方」 and 「よる」
鈴木さんの方が若い。Suzuki-san is younger. (lit: The way of Suzuki is young.)Using 「方」 and 「よる」
学生じゃない方がいいよ。It’s better to not be a student. (lit: The way of not being student is good.)Using 「方」 and 「よる」
赤ちゃんは、静かな方が好き。Like quiet babies more. (lit: About babies, the quiet way is desirable.)Using 「方」 and 「よる」
ゆっくり食べた方が健康にいいよ。It’s better for your health to eat slowly.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
こちらから行った方が早かった。It was faster to go from this way.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
怖い映画は観ない方がいいよ。It’s better not to watch scary movie(s).Using 「方」 and 「よる」
そんなに飲まなかった方がよかったIt was better not to have drunk that much.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
ご飯の方が、パンよりおいしい。Rice tastes better than bread. (lit: The rice way is tasty as opposed to bread.)Using 「方」 and 「よる」
キムさんより鈴木さんの方が若い。Suzuki-san is younger than Kim-san. (lit: The way of Suzuki is young as opposed to Kim-san.)Using 「方」 and 「よる」
スミス:仕事がないよりましだよ。Smith: It’s not as bad as opposed to not having a job.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
ゆっくり食べた方が早く食べるよりいい。It is better to eat slowly as opposed to eating quickly.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
新宿の行き方は分かりますか。Do you know the way to go to Shinjuku?Using 「方」 and 「よる」
そういう食べ方は体によくないよ。Eating in that way is not good for your body.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
漢字の書き方を教えてくれますか?Can you teach me the way of writing kanji?Using 「方」 and 「よる」
パソコンの使い方は、みんな知っているでしょう。Probably everybody knows the way to use PC’s.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
人によって話が違う。The story is different depending on the person.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
季節によって果物はおいしくなったり、まずくなったりする。Fruit becomes tasty or nasty depending on the season.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
大樹:それは、裕子によるね。Daiki: That depends on Yuuko.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
天気予報によると、今日は雨だそうだ。According to the weather forecast, I hear today is rain.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
友達の話によると、朋子はやっとボーイフレンドを見つけたらしい。According to a friend’s story, it appears that Tomoko finally found a boyfriend.Using 「方」 and 「よる」
この字は読みにくいThis hand-writing is hard to read.Actions that are easy or hard to do
カクテルはビールより飲みやすいCocktails are easier to drink than beer.Actions that are easy or hard to do
部屋が暗かったので、見にくかったSince the room was dark, it was hard to see.Actions that are easy or hard to do
その肉は食べにくいThat meat is hard to eat.Actions that are easy or hard to do
その肉を食べるのは難しいThe thing of eating that meat is difficult.Actions that are easy or hard to do
彼との忘れがたい思い出を大切にしている。I am treating importantly the hard to forget memories of and with him.Actions that are easy or hard to do
とても信じがたい話だが、本当に起こったらしい。It’s a very difficult to believe story but it seems (from hearsay) that it really happened.Actions that are easy or hard to do
日本語は読みづらいな。Man, Japanese is hard to read.Actions that are easy or hard to do
待ち合わせは、分かりづらい場所にしないでね。Please don’t pick a difficult to understand location for the meeting arrangement.Actions that are easy or hard to do
何も食べない寝ました。Went to sleep without eating anything.More negative verbs
歯を磨かない、学校に行っちゃいました。Went to school without brushing teeth (by accident).More negative verbs
宿題をしない、授業に行くのは、やめた方がいいよ。It’s better to stop going to class without doing homework.More negative verbs
先生と相談しない、この授業を取ることは出来ない。You cannot take this class without consulting with teacher.More negative verbs
彼は何も言わず、帰ってしまった。He went home without saying anything.More negative verbs
何も食べずにそんなにお酒を飲むと当然酔っ払いますよ。Obviously, you’re going to get drunk if you drink that much without eating anything.More negative verbs
勉強せずに東大に入れると思わないな。I don’t think you can get in Tokyo University without studying.More negative verbs
韓国人と結婚しなくてはならんYou must marry a Korean!More negative verbs
そんなことはさせんI won’t let you do such a thing!More negative verbs
皆、今日行くって、知らんかったよ。I didn’t know everybody was going today.More negative verbs
韓国人と結婚してはならぬYou must not marry a Korean!More negative verbs
模擬試験に何回も失敗して、実際に受けてみたら思わぬ結果が出た。After having failed mock examination any number of times, a result I wouldn’t have thought came out when I actually tried taking the test.More negative verbs
ジム:つまり、語学には、能力がないというか。Jim: So basically, it means that you don’t have ability at language.Hypothesizing and Concluding
中国語が読めるわけがないThere’s no way I can read Chinese. (lit: There is no reasoning for [me] to be able to read Chinese.)Hypothesizing and Concluding
一郎:あるわけないでしょう。Ichirou: There’s no way I would have ever gone to her house, right?Hypothesizing and Concluding
一郎:分かるわけないよ!Ichirou: There’s no way I would understand!Hypothesizing and Concluding
ここの試験に合格するのはわけないIt’s easy to pass the tests here.Hypothesizing and Concluding
今度は負けるわけにはいかないThis time, I must not lose at all costs.Hypothesizing and Concluding
ここまできて、あきらめるわけにはいかないAfter coming this far, I must not give up.Hypothesizing and Concluding
明日に行くとするAssume we go tomorrow.Hypothesizing and Concluding
今から行くとしたら、9時に着くと思います。If we suppose that we go from now, I think we will arrive at 9:00.Hypothesizing and Concluding
観客として参加させてもらった。Received favor of allowing to participate as spectator.Hypothesizing and Concluding
被害者としては、非常に幸いだった。As a victim, was extremely fortunate.Hypothesizing and Concluding
朝ご飯を食べたとしても、もう昼だからお腹が空いたでしょう。Even assuming that you ate breakfast, because it’s already noon, you’re probably hungry, right?Hypothesizing and Concluding
すみません、今食べたばかりなので、お腹がいっぱいです。Sorry, but I’m full having just eaten.Time-specific actions
10キロを走ったばかりで、凄く疲れた。I just ran 10 kilometers and am really tired.Time-specific actions
今、家に帰ったばかりです。I got back home just now.Time-specific actions
昼ご飯を食べたばっかなのに、もうお腹が空いた。Despite the fact that I just ate lunch, I’m hungry already.Time-specific actions
まさか、今起きたばっかなの?No way, did you wake up just now?Time-specific actions
窓を開けたとたんに、猫が跳んでいった。As soon as I opened window, cat jumped out.Time-specific actions
映画を観たとたんに、眠くなりました(Since becoming sleepy is something that happened outside your control, this sentence is ok.)Time-specific actions
テレビを観ながら、宿題をする。Do homework while watching TV.Time-specific actions
音楽を聴きながら、学校へ歩くのが好き。Like to walk to school while listening to music.Time-specific actions
相手に何も言わないながら、自分の気持ちをわかってほしいのは単なるわがままだと思わない?Don’t you think that wanting the other person to understand one’s feelings while not saying anything is just simply selfishness?Time-specific actions
ポップコーンを食べながら、映画を観るWatch movie while eating popcorn.Time-specific actions
ポップコーンを食べながら、映画を観たWatched movie while eating popcorn.Time-specific actions
口笛をしながら、手紙を書いていたWas writing letter while whistling.Time-specific actions
仕事がいっぱい入って、残念ながら、今日は行けなくなりました。While it’s unfortunate, a lot of work came in and it became so that I can’t go today.Time-specific actions
貧乏ながらも、高級なバッグを買っちゃったよ。Even while I’m poor, I ended up buying a high quality bag.Time-specific actions
彼は、初心者ながらも、実力はプロと同じだ。Even while he is a beginner, his actual skills are the same as a pro.Time-specific actions
ゲームにはまっちゃって、最近パソコンを使いまくっているよ。Having gotten hooked by games, I do nothing but use the computer lately.Time-specific actions
アメリカにいた時はコーラを飲みまくっていたWhen I was in the US, I drank coke like all the time.Time-specific actions
このままで宜しいですか?Is it ok just like this?Expressing a lack of change
半分しか食べてないままで捨てちゃダメ!You can’t throw it out leaving it in that half-eaten condition!Expressing a lack of change
今日だけは悲しいままでいさせてほしい。For only today, I want you to let me stay in this sad condition.Expressing a lack of change
その格好のままでクラブに入れないよ。You can’t get in the club in that getup (without changing it).Expressing a lack of change
テレビをつけっぱなしにしなければ眠れない人は、結構いる。There exists a fair number of people who cannot sleep unless they turn on the TV and leave it that way.Expressing a lack of change
窓が開けっ放しだったので、蚊がいっぱい入ってしまった。The window was left wide open so a lot of mosquitoes got in.Expressing a lack of change


吾輩は猫であるI am a cat. (This is the title of a famous novel by 夏目漱石)Formal Expressions
混合物(こんごうぶつ, mixture)とは、2種類以上の純物質が混じりあっている物質である。(Wikipedia – 混合物, July 2004)An amalgam is a mixture of two or more pure materials.Formal Expressions
それは不公平ではないでしょうか。Wouldn’t you consider that to be unfair?Formal Expressions
言語は簡単にマスターできることではないLanguage is not something that can be mastered easily.Formal Expressions
花火(はなび)は、火薬と金属の粉末を混ぜたものに火を付け、燃焼時の火花を楽しむためのもの。Fireworks are for the enjoyment of sparks created from combustion created by lighting up a mixture of gunpowder and metal powder.Formal Expressions
企業内の顧客データを利用、彼の行方を調べることが出来た。Was able to investigate his whereabouts using the company’s internal customer data.Formal Expressions
封筒には写真が数枚入っており、手紙が添えられていた。Several photos were inside the envelope, and a letter was attached.Formal Expressions
このファイルにはパスワードが設定されており、開く際にはそれを入力する必要がある。A password has been set on this file, and it needs to entered when opening.Formal Expressions
彼は漫画マニアだから、これらをもう全部読んだはずだよ。He has a mania for comic book(s) so I expect he read all these already.Things that should be a certain way
この料理はおいしいはずだったが、焦げちゃって、まずくなった。This dish was expected to be tasty but it burned and became distasteful.Things that should be a certain way
色々予定してあるから、今年は楽しいクリスマスのはずBecause various things have been planned out, I expect a fun Christmas this year.Things that should be a certain way
そう簡単に直せるはずがないよ。It’s not supposed to be that easy to fix.Things that should be a certain way
打合せは毎週2時から始まるはずじゃないですか?This meeting is supposed to start every week at 2 o’clock, isn’t it?Things that should be a certain way
何かを買う前に本当に必要かどうかをよく考えるべきだ。Before buying something, one should think well on whether it’s really necessary or not.Things that should be a certain way
例え国のためであっても、国民を騙すべきではないと思う。Even if it is, for example, for the country, I don’t think the country’s citizens should be deceived.Things that should be a certain way
預金者が大手銀行を相手取って訴訟を起こすケースも出ており、金融庁は被害者の救済を優先させて、金融機関に犯罪防止対策の強化を促すべきだと判断。(朝日新聞)With cases coming out of depositors suing large banks, the Financial Services Agency decided it should prioritize relief for victims and urge banks to strengthen measures for crime prevention.Things that should be a certain way
早く帰るべきShould go home early.Things that should be a certain way
早く帰るべく、準備をし始めた。In trying to go home early, started the preparations.Things that should be a certain way
試験に合格すべく、皆一生懸命に勉強している。Everybody is studying very hard in an effort to pass the exam.Things that should be a certain way
今後もお客様との対話の窓口として、より充実していくべく努力してまいりますWe are working from here in an effort to provide a enriched window for customer interaction.Things that should be a certain way
ゴミ捨てるべからずYou must not throw away trash.Things that should be a certain way
安全措置を忘れるべからずYou must not forget the safety measures.Things that should be a certain way
宿題が多すぎて、トイレに行く時間さえなかった。There was so much homework, I didn’t even have time to go to the bathroom.The minimum expectation
お金さえあれば、何でも出来るよ。The least you need is money and you can do anything.The minimum expectation
お弁当を買うお金さえなかった。I didn’t even have money to buy lunch.The minimum expectation
でさえ出来れば、あんたには楽ちんでしょう。If even I can do it, it should be a breeze for you.The minimum expectation
ビタミンを食べさえすれば、健康が保証されますよ。If you just eat vitamins, your health will be guaranteed.The minimum expectation
自分の過ちを認めさえしなければ、問題は解決しないよ。The problem won’t be solved if you don’t even recognize your own mistake, you know.The minimum expectation
教科書をもっとちゃんと読んでさえいれば、合格できたのに。If only I had read the textbook more properly, I could have passed.The minimum expectation
一言言ってさえくれればこんなことにならなかった。If you only had said something things wouldn’t have turned out like this.The minimum expectation
この天才の私ですらわからなかった。Even a genius such as myself couldn’t solve it.The minimum expectation
私は緊張しすぎて、ちらっと見ることすら出来ませんでした。I was so nervous that I couldn’t even take a quick peek.The minimum expectation
「人」の漢字すら知らない生徒は、いないでしょ!There are no students that don’t even know the 「人」 Kanji!The minimum expectation
漢字はおろか、ひらがなさえ読めないよ!Forget about Kanji, I can’t even read Hiragana!The minimum expectation
結婚はおろか、2ヶ月付き合って、結局別れてしまった。We eventually broke up after going out two months much less get married.The minimum expectation
大学はおろか、高校すら卒業しなかった。I didn’t even graduate from high school much less college.The minimum expectation
漢字どころか、ひらがなさえ読めないよ!Forget about Kanji, I can’t even read Hiragana!The minimum expectation
早くきてよ!何を恥ずかしがっているの?Hurry up and come here. What are you acting all embarrassed for?Showing signs of something
彼女は朝早く起こされるのを嫌がるタイプです。My girlfriend is the type to show dislike towards getting woken up early in the morning.Showing signs of something
うちの子供はプールに入るのを理由もなく怖がるOur child acts afraid about entering a pool without any reason.Showing signs of something
家に帰ったら、すぐパソコンを使いたがる(He) soon acts like wanting to use computer as soon as (he) gets home.Showing signs of something
みんなイタリアに行きたがってるんだけど、私の予算で行けるかどうかはとても怪しい。Everybody is acting like they want to go to Italy but it’s suspicious whether I can go or not going by my budget.Showing signs of something
妻はルイヴィトンのバッグを欲しがっているんだけど、そんなもん、買えるわけないでしょう!My wife was showing signs of wanting a Louis Vuitton bag but there’s no way I can buy something like that!Showing signs of something
私は寒がり屋だから、ミネソタで暮らすのは辛かった。I’m the type who easily gets cold and so living in Minnesota was painful.Showing signs of something
ボールは爆発せんばかりに、膨らんでいた。The ball was expanding as if it was going to explode.Showing signs of something
「あんたとは関係ない」と言わんばかりに彼女は彼を無視していた。She ignored him as if to say, “You have nothing to do with this.”Showing signs of something
昨日の喧嘩で何も言わなかったばかりに、平気な顔をしている。Has a calm face as if [he] didn’t say anything during the fight yesterday.Showing signs of something
紅葉が始まり、すっかり秋めいた空気になってきた。With the leaves starting to change color, the air came to become quite autumn like.Showing signs of something
そんな謎めいた顔をされても、うまく説明できないよ。Even having that kind of puzzled look done to me, I can’t explain it very well, you know.Showing signs of something
いつも皮肉めいた言い方をしたら、みんなを嫌がらせるよ。You’ll make everyone dislike you if you keep speaking with that ironic tone, you know.Showing signs of something
このテレビがこれ以上壊れたら、新しいのを買わざるを得ないな。If this TV breaks even more, there’s no choice but to buy a new one.Expressing non-feasibility
ずっと我慢してきたが、この状態だと歯医者さんに行かざるを得ないI tolerated it all this time but in this situation, I can’t not go to the dentist.Expressing non-feasibility
上司の話を聞くと、どうしても海外に出張をせざるを得ないようです。Hearing the story from the boss, it seems like I can’t not go on a business trip overseas no matter what.Expressing non-feasibility
やむを得ない事由により手続が遅れた場合、必ずご連絡下さい。If the paperwork should be late due to uncontrollable circumstance, please make sure to contact us.Expressing non-feasibility
この仕事は厳しいかもしれませんが、最近の不景気では新しい仕事が見つからないのでやむを得ない状態です。This job may be bad but because (I) can’t find a new job due to the recent economic downturn, it’s a situation where nothing can be done.Expressing non-feasibility
この場ではちょっと決めかねますので、また別途会議を設けましょう。Since making a decision here is impossible, let’s set up a separate meeting again.Expressing non-feasibility
このままでは、個人情報が漏洩しかねないので、速やかに対応をお願い致します。At this rate, there is a possibility that personal information might leak so I request that this be dealt with promptly.Expressing non-feasibility
確定申告は忘れがちな手続のひとつだ。Filing income taxes is one of those processes that one is prone to forget.Tendencies
留守がちなご家庭には、犬よりも、猫の方がおすすめです。For families that tend to be away from home, cats are recommended over dogs.Tendencies
父親は病気がちで、みんなが心配している。Father is prone to illness and everybody is worried.Tendencies
テレビを見ながら、寝ちゃダメよ!Don’t watch TV while sleeping!Tendencies
二日酔いで痛む頭を押さえつつ、トイレに入った。Went into the bathroom while holding an aching head from a hangover.Tendencies
体によくないと思いつつ、最近は全然運動してない。While thinking it’s bad for body, haven’t exercised at all recently.Tendencies
電気製品の発展につれて、ハードディスクの容量はますます大きくなりつつあるLead by the advancement of electronic products, hard disk drive capacities are becoming ever larger.Tendencies
今の日本では、終身雇用や年功序列という雇用慣行が崩れつつあるIn today’s Japan, hiring practices like life-time employment and age-based ranking are tending to break down.Tendencies
多くの大学生は、締切日ぎりぎりまで、宿題をやらないきらいがあるA lot of college students have a bad tendency of not doing their homework until just barely it’s due date.Tendencies
コーディングが好きな開発者は、ちゃんとしたドキュメント作成と十分なテストを怠るきらいがあるDevelopers that like coding have a bad tendency to neglect proper documents and adequate testing.Tendencies
相手は剣の達人だ。そう簡単には勝てまいYour opponent is a master of the sword. I doubt you can win so easily.Advanced Volitional
そんな無茶な手段は認めますまいI won’t approve of such an unreasonable method!Advanced Volitional
その時までは決して彼に会うまいと心に決めていた。Until that time, I had decided in my heart to not meet him by any means.Advanced Volitional
あの人は、二度と嘘をつくまいと誓ったのです。That person had sworn to never lie again.Advanced Volitional
明日に行くのをやめようLet’s not go tomorrow. (lit: Let’s quit going tomorrow.)Advanced Volitional
肉を食べないようにしているTrying not to eat meat.Advanced Volitional
あいつが大学に入ろうが入るまいが、俺とは関係ないよ。Whether that guy is going to college or not, it has nothing to do with me.Advanced Volitional
時間があろうがあるまいが、間に合わせるしかない。Whether there is time or not, there’s nothing to do but make it on time.Advanced Volitional
最近のウィルスは強力で、プログラムを実行しようがしまいが、ページを見るだけで感染するらしい。The viruses lately have been strong and whether you run a program or not, I hear it will spread just by looking at the page.Advanced Volitional
今後50年、人間が直面するであろう問題に正面から向き合って、自ら解決をはかりつつ、そのノウハウが次の産業となるシナリオを考えたい。(from www.jkokuryo.com)I would like to directly approach problems that humans have likely encounter the next 50 years and while devising solutions, take that knowledge and think about scenarios that will become the next industry.Advanced Volitional
もちろん、生徒数減少の現在、学科の新設は困難であろうが、職業科の統廃合や科内コースの改編などで時代に合わせた変革が求められているはずである。(from www1.normanet.ne.jp)Of course, setting up new courses of study will likely be difficult with this period of decreasing student population but with reorganizations of occupational studies and courses within subjects, there is supposed to be demand for reform fit for this period.Advanced Volitional
どんな商品でもネットで販売するだけで売上が伸びるというものではなかろうIt’s not necessarily the case that sales go up just by selling any type of product on the net.Advanced Volitional
運動を始めるのが早かろう遅かろうが、健康にいいというのは変わりません。Whether you start exercising early or late, the fact that it’s good for your health doesn’t change.Advanced Volitional
休日であろうが、なかろうが、この仕事では関係ないみたい。Whether it’s a holiday or not, it looks like it doesn’t matter for this job.Advanced Volitional
このドキュメントは間違いだらけで、全然役に立たない。This document is just riddled with mistakes and is not useful at all.Covered by something
携帯を2年間使ってたら、傷だらけになった。After using cell phone for 2 years, it became covered with scratches.Covered by something
この埃だらけのテレビをちゃんと拭いてくれない?Can you properly dust this TV completely covered in dust?Covered by something
彼は油まみれになりながら、車の修理に頑張りました。While becoming covered in oil, he worked hard at fixing the car.Covered by something
たった1キロを走っただけで、汗まみれになるのは情けない。It’s pitiful that one gets covered in sweat from running just 1 kilometer.Covered by something
白ずくめ団体は去年ニュースになっていた。The organization dressed all in white was on the news last year.Covered by something
このシェークは、おいしいし、栄養たっぷりで体にいいですから、いいことずくめですよ。This shake is tasty and filled with nutrients, it’s good for (your) body so it’s entirely good things.Covered by something
彼女は、教授の姿を見るが早いか、教室から逃げ出した。The instant (she) saw the professor’s figure, (she) ran away from the classroom.Immediate Events
「食べてみよう」と言うが早いか、口の中に放り込んだ。The instant (he) said “let’s try eating it”, he threw (it) into his mouth.Immediate Events
「食べてみよう」と言ったが早いか、口の中に放り込んだ。The instant (he) said “let’s try eating it”, he threw (it) into his mouth.Immediate Events
私の顔を見るや、何か言おうとした。(He) tried to say something as soon as he saw my face.Immediate Events
搭乗のアナウンスが聞こえるや否や、みんながゲートの方へ走り出した。As soon as the announcement to board was audible, everybody started running toward the gate.Immediate Events
子供が掃除するそばから散らかすから、もうあきらめたくなった。The child messes up (the room) [repeatedly] as soon as I clean so I already became wanting to give up.Immediate Events
教科書を読んだそばから忘れてしまうので勉強ができない。Forget [repeatedly] right after I read the textbook so I can’t study.Immediate Events
昼間だから絶対込んでいると思いきや、一人もいなかった。Despite having thought that it must be crowded since it was afternoon, (surprisingly) not a single person was there.Other Grammar
このレストランは安いと思いきや、会計は5千円以上だった!Thought this restaurant would be cheap but (surprisingly) the bill was over 5,000 yen!Other Grammar
散歩がてら、タバコを買いに行きました。While taking a stroll, I also used that time to buy cigarettes.Other Grammar
博物館を見がてらに、お土産を買うつもりです。While seeing the museum, I plan to also use that time to buy souvenirs.Other Grammar
事情を2時間かけて説明したあげく、納得してもらえなかった。(After a great deal of) explaining the circumstances for 2 hours, (in the end), couldn’t receive understanding.Other Grammar
先生と相談のあげく、退学をしないことにした。(After much) consulting with teacher, (in the end), decided on not dropping out of school.Other Grammar